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Table 5 Characteristics of included studies

From: Observer roles that optimise learning in healthcare simulation education: a systematic review

Study Characteristics Number of Studies Number of Participants
All studies 9 1203
Study participants
 Medical students 3 484
 Nursing students 5 527
 Practicing clinicians 1  
  Physician   43
  Nurse   114
  “Psychosocial clinicians”   20
  Medical interpreter   14
Study settings
 Mannequin based simulation (high fidelity simulation - HFS) 5 527
 Simulated patient (SP) 2 324
 Actor (improvisation rather than scripted SP) 1 192
 Role play by participant group 1 160
Study design
 Post test only (Knowledge) 1 92
 Pre-test/post-test 1 group 1 157
 Pre-test/post-test 2 groups 2 344
 Self-assessment pre-test and post-test 3 476
 Self-assessment post-test only 1 84
Observer role allocation
 Randomised 5 643
 Self allocation 1 84
 Unclear 2 284
Outcome
 Knowledge 6 869
 Skills - technical 3 441
 Skills - non technical 8 1059
 Attitudes 2 134
 Behaviours 1 84
Learning outcomes by role
 Participatory role better than observer 2 208
 Observer role better than participatory 1 200
 No difference 4 588
Satisfaction by role
 Participatory role more valued than observer 2 208
 Observer role more valued than participatory 1 144
 No difference in value 3 334
Observational tool used 6 803
Debriefing/feedback
 Observer led pairs 1 200
 Faculty led group debrief 7 811
 Feedback guide 1 200