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Table 3 Demonstration of key physiotherapy knowledge, skills and behaviours

From: Using video-reflexive ethnography and simulation-based education to explore patient management and error recognition by pre-registration physiotherapists

CSP framework domain [38] Elicited through the scenario Examples from the simulation scenario mapped to the graduate entry-level descriptors [38] Elicited through the VRE interview Examples from the video-reflexive ethnography interview mapped to the graduate entry-level descriptors [38]
Physiotherapy values Responsible for own actions, behaves ethically, undertakes an effective assessment Reflexive review of their own actions, behaviours and professionalism evident within the simulation scenario
Knowledge and understanding of physiotherapy Practice within complex generally predictable conditions which required the application of current physiotherapy knowledge Reflexive review of their own knowledge relating to the management of an acutely ill patient
Self-awareness Reflection-in-action of the limitation of knowledge and skills. Requesting help from an appropriate member of the multi-disciplinary team Demonstration of self-awareness during the reflexive review of personal practice, incorporating feedback from others to identify and articulate their personal values, ways of working, then analysing how these may influence their behaviour and practice
Physiotherapy practice skills Assessment and management of the acutely deteriorating patient including the modification of techniques in response to patient feedback and physiological changes in the patient’s condition
Process and critically analyse information in complex and predictable situations where data/information comes from a range of sources or is incomplete
Reflexive review of physiotherapy and generic AIM skills in the management of an acutely deteriorating patient. Demonstration of the ability to evaluate their own and others’ performance. By reflecting on clinical decisions and evaluating the outcome of intervention and the overall scenario, participants recognised this may inform their future practice (advanced graduate level)
Communicating Demonstration of sharing information, advice and ideas with others using a variety of media (including spoken, non-verbal, written). Modification of communication to meet individuals’ preferences and needs Evidence of self-awareness and ability to modify their communication in response to feedback (e.g. from the patient and peer) to meet the needs of others involved in the simulation scenario
Promoting integration and teamwork Demonstration of the ability to work effectively with others to meet the responsibilities of professional practice Reflexive review of their own practice within the scenario including working effectively with others to meet the responsibilities of professional practice and identifying situations where collaborative approaches could add value to practice and improve patient safety (in particular moving and handling and infection control)
Helping others learn and develop x   Demonstration of self-awareness of learning preferences and started to independently identify some personal learning and development needs relating to assessment and physiotherapy intervention options (advanced graduate level)
Managing self and others Actively takes some responsibility for the work of others (e.g. delegation of tasks within the scenario)
Modification of personal behaviour and actions in response to peer/patient feedback to meet the demands of the situation
Reflexive review of the ability to take some responsibility for the work of others (e.g. delegation of tasks within the scenario). Demonstration of an ability to suggest modification of their personal behaviour and actions in response to peer feedback, to meet the demands of similar situation in the future, in order to enhance own performance
Putting the person at the centre of practice Demonstration of respect for the HCA and simulated patient by acknowledging their unique needs, preferences and values, autonomy and independence in accordance with legislation, policies, procedures and best practice Acknowledging the unique needs and preferences of the patient and peer in accordance with legislation (e.g. moving and handling or infection control policies, procedures and best practice)
Respecting and promoting diversity Demonstration of respect for the ability to work constructively with people of all backgrounds and orientations by recognising and responding to individuals’ expressed beliefs, preferences and choices Reflexively reviewed their own practice within the scenario including working constructively with others (physiotherapist, HCA, patient) and recognising and responding to individuals’ expressed beliefs, preferences and choices (e.g. treatment preferences and subjective comments relating to fatigue or requiring a rest from treatment)
Ensuring quality Recognised situations where the effectiveness and efficiency of intervention are compromised and take appropriate action Reflected on personal performance and with guidance, projects that this evaluation can be used to enhance the effectiveness, efficiency and quality of future practice (advanced graduate level)
Lifelong learning Identified knowledge/skill deficits, request assistance and identify further personal development requirements (in particular relating to physiotherapy intervention and suction) Assessed own personal learning and development needs and preferences. Reflected on the learning process
Practise decision-making Effective use of a wide range of routine and some specialised approaches (AIM) and techniques to systematically collect information from a variety of sources relevant to the situation Reflexively reviewed the effectiveness of a routine and specialised AIM approach and techniques to systematically collect information from a variety of sources relevant to the situation
  1. VRE video-reflexive ethnography, HCA healthcare assistant, AIM acute illness management