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Table 4 Video analysis of physiotherapy non-technical skills observed during the scenario

From: Using video-reflexive ethnography and simulation-based education to explore patient management and error recognition by pre-registration physiotherapists

Theme Subtheme Definition Frequency/12 scenarios
1) Situational awareness 1.1 Gathering informationa, b Uses the patient’s medical records, charts, and x-ray to ascertain the pertinent information 12
  1.2 Understanding informationa, b Verbalises awareness of the situation and evolving physiological status of the patient 12
  1.3 Projectionab Demonstrates an awareness of possible future states (e.g. changes in the physiological states of the patient) 5
  1.4 Anticipating future statesa, b Anticipates possible future states (e.g. changes in the physiological states of the patient) 3
2) Decision-making 2.1 Considering optionsa, b Verbalises assessment/interventions/management options relevant to the patient or situation 12
2.2 Selecting and communicating optionsab Selects and communicates options relevant to the patient or situation 12
2.3 Implementing decisionsa, b Implements decisions appropriately 12
2.4 Reviewing decisionsa, b Reviews decisions following implementation of intervention or during the handover 11
3) Task management 3.1 Planning and preparinga, b
3.2 Flexibility or responding to changea, b
Appropriately prepares the environment before implementing intervention
Adopts a flexible approach to assessment of the patient, responding to changes in the patient’s needs
4) Leadership 4.1 Setting standardsa, b Demonstrates an awareness of moving and handling/infection control procedure 11
  4.2 Maintaining standardsa, b Adheres to moving and handling policy standards. Adheres to infection control policy in relation to the management of the patient. Raises the awareness of the need for infection control equipment 7
  4.3 Supporting othersa, b Demonstrates supportive attitude towards others in their role/duties/actions relating to the assessment/treatment intervention 2
5) Communication and teamwork 5.1 Exchanging informationa, b Demonstrates the ability to exchange verbal/written information with others 12
5.2 Establishing a shared understandinga, b Demonstrates the ability to communicate information to ensure a shared understanding amongst members of the team (e.g. present or via telephone conversation) regarding the patient’s current/evolving status 7
5.3 Co-ordaining team activitiesa, b Demonstrates the ability to coordinate team activities (e.g. undertaking the lead role in moving and handling, repositioning the patient, suction) 10
5.4 Communicating requirementsa, b Demonstrates an ability to communicate requirements (e.g. requesting further assistance from other members of the multi-disciplinary team) 10
5.5 Use of a standardised communication tool Uses a standardised communication tool (e.g. SBAR) when communicating with other members of the multi-disciplinary team 1
  1. SBAR Situation, Background, Assessment and Recommendation [62]
  2. aA priori basic themes from the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) behaviour rating tool [58]
  3. bCSP behaviours, values, knowledge and skills framework [38]