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Table 3 Final-product performance of virtual mastoidectomy (26-item modified Welling scale, maximum score 26)

From: The effect of implementing cognitive load theory-based design principles in virtual reality simulation training of surgical skills: a randomized controlled trial

  Control group 95 % CI Intervention group 95 % CI p
Post-training session 1 15.5 13.6–17.4 12.2 10.2–14.1 0.45
Post-training session 2 15.4 13.9–16.9 13.8 12.1–15.6
Post-training mean 15.4 14.4–16.5 13.0 11.8–14.4 <0.005*
  1. Estimated marginal means and p values calculated using linear mixed models
  2. *Significant at the <0.05 level