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Table 2 Analysis summary on stress and performance variables comparing ‘hot-seat’ (n = 18) and ‘observer’ (n = 19) study groups

From: The effects of active (hot-seat) versus observer roles during simulation-based training on stress levels and non-technical performance: a randomized trial

Stress variable Role Session ANOVA
p valuesa
1 2 3
LS mean change from baseline, (95% CI), median
 Salivary cortisol (μg/dL) Hot-seat 0.12*b
(0.05, 0.19)
0.05
0.07*
(0.001, 0.15)
0.03
0.09*
(0.01, 0.16)
0.05
0.608
0.311e
Observers −0.06
(−0.13, 0.01)
−0.02
0.01
(−0.06, 0.08)
−0.01
0.14**
(0.07, 0.22)
0.15
<0.001**d
0.008**e
Difference 0.18**c
(0.08, 0.29)
0.06
(−0.04, 0.16)
−0.06
(−0.16, 0.04)
 
H-L location shift (95% CI) 0.09**
(0.02, 0.26)
0.04
(−0.01, 0.11)
−0.06
(−0.16, 0.04)
 
LS mean change from baseline, (95% CI)
 Heart rate (beats/min) Hot-seat 6.4*
(1.2, 12)
5.4*
(0.2, 10.7)
4.7
(−0.5, 9.9)
0.902
Observers −0.4
(−4.7, 3.8)
−0.4
(−4.7, 3.8)
5.7*
(1.4, 9.9)
0.071
  Difference 6.8*
(0.2, 13.5)
5.9
(−0.8, 12.5)
−1.0
(−7.6, 5.7)
 
LS mean, (95% CI), median
 mDASS Hot-seat 17.6
(12.4, 22.7)
16
15.4
(10.2, 20.5)
13
14.4
(9.2, 19.6)
14.5
0.676
0.666e
Observers 9.0
(4.9, 13.1)
6
5.9
(1.9, 10.0)
5
13.4
(9.3, 17.4)
11
0.042*f
0.001**e
Difference 8.6*
(2.0, 15.1)
9.4**
(2.9, 16.0)
1.0
(−5.5, 7.5)
 
H-L location shift (95% CI) 8.0*
(2, 15)
8.0**
(2, 15)
1.0
(−5, 9)
 
LS mean, (95% CI)
 ANTS Hot-seat 36.7
(34.6, 38.9)
39.6
(37.5, 41.7)
40.0
(37.9, 42.1)
0.036*
Observers    39.4
(37.4, 41.5)
 
  Difference    0.6
(−2.4, 3.5)
 
  1. LS least squares, H-L Hodges-Lehmann
  2. Statistically significant, *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01
  3. aH0: no difference among session means
  4. bH0: mean change from baseline = 0 (salivary cortisol and heart rate only)
  5. cH0: no difference between ‘hot-seat’ and ‘observer’ session means
  6. dPost hoc comparisons: session 1 versus 3, −0.20 (−0.31, −0.10); p = 0.0002; session 2 versus 3: −0.13 (−0.24, −0.03); p = 0.011
  7. eH0: no difference among session medians
  8. fPost hoc comparison: session 2 versus 3, −7.4 (−13.2, −1.7); p = 0.012