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Table 1 Useful questions for needs analysis and/or reflections and debriefings

From: The use of simulation to prepare and improve responses to infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19: practical tips and resources from Norway, Denmark, and the UK

People• Identify all staff who have contact with patients and their relatives. Consider:
 o Consider knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to act in the crisis.
 o All hours and days of the week.
 o All aspects of a hospital stay (diagnosis, treatment, administration, catering, etc.).
 o What should they be able to do?
 o Do they have the right attitude for the work they are doing?
• How many people of different professions do you need for the task, and where do they need to be?
 o Who are your reserves (clinical staff as well as facilitators) if people get ill and how do you activate them?
• Are the people involved clear about the tasks that they need to do? Do they agree with these expectations?
 o Where can they get task-oriented help?
 o Where can they get help on a personal level?
 o What do they do if the situation gets out of control (getting help, escaping, etc.)?
 o What can you do to support them with the emotional strain?
Tasks to be done• What tasks in relation to diagnosis, interventions, and care need to be prioritised?
 o In preparation of receiving patients
 o During treatment
 o Follow-up
• What are the important tasks beyond the interaction with the patient?
 o Administration
 o Infection control
 o Co-ordination with other people and departments
• How does personal protective equipment (PPE) affect the task?
 o Time for donning and doffing
 o Are there limitations to psychomotor activities?
 o Is sensory input impaired (e.g. do people need to speak louder)?
 o Is there need for additional storage and waste space?
• How do you implement the individual tasks? These aspects are inspired by the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) [24]
 o What triggers an action?
 o What is the expected outcome of the action (e.g. more information, a treatment step implemented)?
 o Will the outcome of the task meet its requirements? Is the outcome of too high or low quality compared to the resources available and is it on time?
 o What needs to be done before you can even start the task?
 o What resources are needed whilst the task is running?
 o What is the timeframe (e.g. duration, sequence)?
 o What guidance is there for the task (both official and unofficial practice)? Are different sources of guidance aligned (e.g. do the guidelines reflect clinical practice)?
Context• Where would patients, relatives, and healthcare professionals meet?
• Will the environment support patients and healthcare professionals psychologically?
• Will the environment support the task? [25]
• Is all equipment available and in the right place?
• How can missing equipment be found?
• What is the backup plan?
• Is it easy for patients, relatives, staff, and potential volunteers to find where they need to go?
General pointsRemain vigilant for any issues that come about in relation to managing COVID-19, and consider who you should inform about any possible insights
• Surprises
• Misunderstandings
• Different priorities and wishes between people
• Agreements made and ways to find the agreements
• Challenges of implementing the procedures into practice
• Adaptations and refinements of procedures on the fly
• Equipment needed
• Be resourceful with equipment and material
• Concerns of the healthcare professionals