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Table 2 Characteristics associated with temporal individual differences [12, 15, 16, 20]

From: TIDES: examining the influence of temporal individual differences on multitasking in educational simulation

Time urgency Multitasking Polychronicity
-Time awareness
-List making
-Deadline control
-Scheduling
-Simple tasks that require fast switching
-Length of time is context-specific, but generally regarded as sixty minutes or fewer
-Prefer completing several activities at the same time
-Relationship-oriented
-Tolerate interruptions
-Less regard for time constraints
-Elaborate information networks
Time perspective
Past Present Future
Recall past situations with memories of associated costs and benefits. A focus on the past affects interpretation of current decisions; top-down decision making Focus on an individual situation, its intensity, and social aspects in order to decide on a course of action; bottom-up decision making Anticipate and develop expectations about the future and makes decisions about present actions based on the potential cost and reward; top-down decision making
Balanced time perspective
An idealized mental framework allowing individuals to switch between time perspective frames depending on situational demands, resources available, personal, and social appraisals; a compromise among the representations of past experiences, present desires, and future consequences; related to emotional intelligence