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Table 5 Factors and sample questions on Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory [16, 20]

From: TIDES: examining the influence of temporal individual differences on multitasking in educational simulation

Subscale Sample item Known correlations
Past positive perspective “On balance, there is much more good to recall than bad in my past” Warm attitude toward the past
Past negative perspective “I often think of what I should have done differently in my life” Depression, unhappiness, low self-esteem, anxiety
Present hedonistic perspective “I believe that getting together with one’s friend to party is one of life’s important pleasures” Novelty-seeking, sensations seeking, and ego under-control
Present fatalistic perspective “Fate determines much in my life” “Future is predestined and uninfluenced by individual action”
Future perspective “I believe a person’s day should be planned ahead each morning” Conscientiousness, consideration of future consequences, number of hours spent studying per week