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Table 1 Included studies and sample size/types of participants and the Kirkpatrick level investigated in each study

From: Simulation-based team training in time-critical clinical presentations in emergency medicine and critical care: a review of the literature

Study Country Study design Sample size/type of participants Kirkpatrick level
Physicians Nurses Other   I II III  
Bond et al. [22] Chicago, USA Pre-post 9 42 9 ED technicians    X   
Brewster et al. [23] Australia Pre-post 19 80     X   
Chan et al. [24] Hong Kong, China Pre-post 26 46     X   
Couto et al. [25] Sao Paulo, Brazil Prospective observational 40 24 50 nurse technicians    X   
Dagnone et al. [26] Ontario, Canada Pre-post 21 8 12 medical students, 1 respiratory therapist, 1 paramedic   X    
Hicks et al. [27] Toronto, Canada Pre-post 14     X X X  
Marker et al. [28] Denmark Interview study 20       X  
Meurling et al. [29] Sweden Pre-post 51 75 25 nurse assistants    X   
Paltved et al. [30] Denmark Pre-post, needs analysis 9 30     X   
Parsons et al. [31] Philadelphia, USA Pre-post 14      X   
Rasmussen et al. [32] Denmark Semi-structured interviews 14 3    X    
Truta et al. [33] Romania Pre-post 30 40     X   
Wong et al. [34] USA Mixed-methods design. Pre-post. 17 11 10 technicians, 13 protective service, 6 advanced practice providers    X