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Table 1 Established curriculum development frameworks. The proposed SBPT Blueprint incorporates parts of both frameworks alongside additional design considerations centred around education theory

From: Simulation-based procedure training (SBPT) in rarely performed procedures: a blueprint for theory-informed design considerations

Kern et al.’s [25] six steps

(i) Identification of a problem and a general needs assessment;

(ii) targeted needs assessment;

(iii) goals and objectives;

(iv) educational strategies;

(v) implementation;

(vi) evaluation and feedback.

• This approach acknowledges that curriculum development is dynamic with multiple interacting components and interplay between steps. For example, availability of resources will have an impact on the learning objectives.

• It streamlines curriculum development attempting to align targeted goals and objectives with implementation and evaluation.

• The aim is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of teaching.

• The Kern approach is widely applicable to different fields of teaching.

Sawyer et al.’s [26] six steps

(i) Pre-simulation didactic learning

(ii) observation of the procedure;

(iii) deliberate practice;

(iv) proof of competency prior to performing the skill on a patient;

(v) doing the procedure on patients;

(vi) maintenance through continued practice.

• Simulation training is split explicitly into cognitive and psychomotor phases with an expectation of adequate theoretical knowledge before simulator practice.

• This approach promotes skill maintenance through continued practice but does not explore repetition intervals.

• It is more directive than the Kern approach and focused more on the design of procedural skill training.

• It explicitly includes a human performance element which decreases its utility for teaching rarely performed procedures.