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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Observer roles that optimise learning in healthcare simulation education: a systematic review

Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria





Clinicians and students of any health profession

Non health professionals


Undergoing a mannequin or simulated patient based learning experience and

Computer based, skill or part-task trainers, virtual reality, or cadaveric simulation/simulators.

• Examines the role of the observer

• Has an observer role defined as a learner within a scenario not in a clinically congruent role or

• Has an observer role external to scenario participant roles

• Studies which do not explicitly examine the observer role.

• Observers who are not participating in the learning, for example observers for the purpose of research study.

• Expert modelling for learning

Outcome measures

• A direct or indirect change in knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviours

• Description of behaviours without consideration of any changes in learner behaviour


Peer reviewed papers in the english language from 1980 to October 4th 2014.

• Non peer reviewed publications e.g thesis or reports

• Descriptive papers

• Published texts or books