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Table 2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Observer roles that optimise learning in healthcare simulation education: a systematic review

Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria
Criterion Inclusion Exclusion
Population Clinicians and students of any health profession Non health professionals
Intervention Undergoing a mannequin or simulated patient based learning experience and Computer based, skill or part-task trainers, virtual reality, or cadaveric simulation/simulators.
• Examines the role of the observer
• Has an observer role defined as a learner within a scenario not in a clinically congruent role or
• Has an observer role external to scenario participant roles
• Studies which do not explicitly examine the observer role.
• Observers who are not participating in the learning, for example observers for the purpose of research study.
• Expert modelling for learning
Outcome measures • A direct or indirect change in knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviours • Description of behaviours without consideration of any changes in learner behaviour
Citations Peer reviewed papers in the english language from 1980 to October 4th 2014. • Non peer reviewed publications e.g thesis or reports
• Descriptive papers
• Published texts or books