Clinicians and students of any health profession
Non health professionals
Undergoing a mannequin or simulated patient based learning experience and
Computer based, skill or part-task trainers, virtual reality, or cadaveric simulation/simulators.
• Examines the role of the observer
• Has an observer role defined as a learner within a scenario not in a clinically congruent role or
• Has an observer role external to scenario participant roles
• Studies which do not explicitly examine the observer role.
• Observers who are not participating in the learning, for example observers for the purpose of research study.
• Expert modelling for learning
• A direct or indirect change in knowledge, skills, attitudes or behaviours
• Description of behaviours without consideration of any changes in learner behaviour
Peer reviewed papers in the english language from 1980 to October 4th 2014.
• Non peer reviewed publications e.g thesis or reports
• Descriptive papers
• Published texts or books