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Table 2 Studies selected for inclusion

From: Are simulated patients effective in facilitating development of clinical competence for healthcare students? A scoping review

#* Country Study type Cohort size Cohort discipline Intervention Comparison Outcome assessed Main findings
Cognitive skills
1 U.S. Cross-sectional 85 Medicine 4-h workshop using SPs Non-participants Diagnosing domestic violence Better performance
2 U.S. Cross-sectional 263 Medicine Curriculum involving SPs Non-participants Pain assessment and management skills Better performance
3 Belgium RCT (3-factor) 196 Medicine Training session with SPs Training with physicians or online training Cognitive component of consultation skills No improvement (cf. improvement in comparison group)
4 Canada Cross-sectional 72 Occupational therapy & physiotherapy Interaction with SPs Watching videotapes Treatment planning Worse performance
Non-technical skills
5 U.S. Longitudinal 143 Dentistry Training session with SPs - Interpersonal communication skills Improvement of performance
6 Turkey Longitudinal 146 Medicine Training session involving SPs - Breaking bad news Improvement of performance
7 U.S. Longitudinal 45 Medicine 2-h curriculum by SPs - Brief motivational interviewing skills Improvement of performance
8 U.S. Longitudinal 127 Pharmacy Lecture-laboratory course with SPs - Communication skills Improvement of performance
9 Germany Cross-sectional 286 Medicine 2-h communication skills training session with SPs Non-participants Communication skills Better performance
10 Germany Cross-sectional 103 Medicine Training session with SPs Non-participants Communication skills Better performance
11 U.S. Cross-sectional 38 Medicine 1-h session with SP Non-participants Breaking bad news Better performance
12 U.S. RCT 186 Medicine 4-h workshop using SPs Non-participants Interviewing and counselling skills Better performance
13 U.S. Cross-sectional 106 Medicine Educational session involving SPs Non-participants Communication skills Better performance
14 India RCT 60 Dentistry Training course involving SPs Non-participants Communication skills Better performance
15 U.K. RCT 24 Medicine Hybrid simulation session with SPs Small group tutorial Communication skills Better performance
16 Canada RCT 32 Medicine SP-session with feedback SP-session without feedback Communication skills Better performance
17 U.S. RCT 129 Nursing Additional teaching sessions with SPs Didactic lectures only Interpersonal and therapeutic communication skills No difference
18 Taiwan RCT 26 Nursing Instructional class with additional SP feedback and group discussion Instructional class only Communication skills No difference
19 U.S. RCT 93 Medicine Role-play session with SPs Session with student colleagues Motivational interviewing skills No difference
20 U.S. Cross-sectional 72 Medicine Practising with SPs Role-playing with student colleagues Smoking-cessation counselling skills No difference
Cognitive and non-technical skills
21 U.S. Cross-sectional 85 Medicine 4-h workshop using SPs Non-participants Sexual history and HIV counselling skills Better performance
22 U.S. Cross-sectional 183 Medicine Workshop involving SPs Non-participants History taking and counselling skills Better performance
Technical skills
23 U.S. Cross-sectional 95 Medicine Additional training session with SP No additional session Breast examination skills Better performance
24 Belgium Cross-sectional 102 Medicine Training session with SP in a new curriculum Non-participants Urological and gynaecological examination skills Better performance
25 U.S. Cross-sectional 89 Medicine Additional teaching with SPs Traditional teaching only Breast and abdominal examination skills Better performance
26 U.S. Cross-sectional 187 Medicine Curriculum with additional SP session Standard curriculum only Neurological examination skills Better performance
27 U.S. Cross-sectional 244 Medicine Teaching session with SPs Breast-palpation simulator Breast examination skills Worse performance
Technical and cognitive skills
28 Canada Cross-sectional 108 Nursing Practice with SPs Practice on student colleagues History taking and examination skills Better performance
29 U.S. Cross-sectional 204 Medicine Lecture with additional SP exercises Lecture only History taking and examination skills Better performance
Technical and non-technical skills
30 Canada Cross-sectional 82 Medicine 2-h teaching session by SP Physician-led teaching Interpersonal and musculoskeletal examination skills No difference
Cognitive, technical and non-technical skills
31 U.S. Longitudinal 622 Medicine Curriculum involving SPs - History taking, communication and examination skills Improvement of performance
32 U.S. Cross-sectional 170 Medicine Training session with SPs Non-participants Information gathering, communication and examination skills Better performance
33 Canada Cross-sectional 44 Nursing Training session with SPs Human simulators or community volunteers History taking, communication and examination skills Worse performance
  1. *Authors corresponding to # in the Table 2
  2. 1. Haist et al. (2003)
  3. 2. Stevens et al. (2010)
  4. 3. Aper et al. (2012)
  5. 4. Liu et al. (1997)
  6. 5. Broder et al. (2006)
  7. 6. Dikici et al. (2009)
  8. 7. Martino et al. (2007)
  9. 8. Rickles et al. (2009)
  10. 9. Bachmann et al. (2013)
  11. 10. Bosse et al. (2012)
  12. 11. Colletti et al. (2001)
  13. 12. Feddock et al. (2009)
  14. 13. Lorin et al. (2006)
  15. 14. Sangappa et al. (2013)
  16. 15. Siassakos et al. (2010)
  17. 16. Moulton et al. (2009)
  18. 17. Becker et al. (2006)
  19. 18. Lin et al. (2013)
  20. 19. Mounsey et al. (2006)
  21. 20. Papadakis et al. (2009)
  22. 21. Haist et al. (2004)
  23. 22. Hoellein et al. (2009)
  24. 23. Barrett et al. (2002)
  25. 24. Hendrickx et al. (2009)
  26. 25. Sachdeva et al. (1997)
  27. 26. Safdieh et al. (2011)
  28. 27. Schubart et al. (2012)
  29. 28. Bornais et al. (2012)
  30. 29. Fletcher et al. (2004)
  31. 30. Oswald et al. (2011)
  32. 31. Supiano et al. (2007)
  33. 32. Sutin et al. (2011)
  34. 33. Luctkar-Flude et al. (2012)