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Table 1 Considerations for the “Input phase” of translational simulation

From: Translational simulation: from description to action

Examples of stakeholders to involve
Process experts Simulationists (design, delivery, and debrief), simulation technologists, designers, change agents (ideally with translational simulation experience)
Content experts Interprofessional clinical experts, non-clinical experts (e.g. human factors/ergonomics, design and planning, engineers, information technology, hospital services)
Frontline workers Healthcare professionals who interface with the clinical problem as part of their daily work and understand ‘work as actually done’
Leadership Department heads, hospital executive, institutional committees, clinical governance
Consumers Patient advocates, people who can share patient experience
Sources of information useful for defining the problem
• Prior translational simulation outputs
• Benchmarking and standards
• Organisational priorities
• Clinical governance issues (e.g. sentinel events, incident monitoring systems)
• Key performance indicators (KPIs) and performance metrics
• Direct observation of relevant personnel and processes
• Interviews, focus groups and surveys of relevant personnel
• Artefact analysis (e.g. guidelines, cognitive aids, meeting minutes)
• Capital works plans and designs
• Engineering and/or ergonomic assessments
• Brainstorm sessions and workshops involving relevant personnel
• Government or institutional policy documents
• Public health advice on emerging threats (e.g. pandemics)
Factors that influence the value of a translational simulation project
• Institutional priorities
• Patient-oriented outcomes
• Return on investment (ROI) (impact, efficiency, financial)
• Impact on patient and staff experience
• Local team support for project
• Follow-up plan to show impact
• Available resources (simulation and clinical)
• High-value reporting strategy
• Institutional readiness for change
• Opportunity for research (requiring ethics approval)
• Opportunity cost (what other translational simulation projects could be done?)
• Safety (risk mitigation of unintended consequences)